永利皇宫登录网址 > 英语 > 复习经验

考研英语时文赏读(70):人类如何才能够克服HIV?

  摘要:考研英语作为一家考研公共课,虽然大家都学了英语十几年,却仍不时发生总分过线挂在英语上的情况,所以英语复习不只是单词、做题。阅读作为考研英语的洋,只开考研真题或许没法满足你的看量,所以帮帮之后会不定时推出一首英文美文,这些文章还和考研英语阅读同源,多读得有好处。

  An estimated 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV, with just under 2 million of those people having recently contracted the virus. In the United States, around 1.1 million people live with HIV, but as many as 15% (or roughly 1 in 7) of those infected do not know they carry the virus. Some groups bare more of the burden of the HIV risk than others, especially racial minorities and men who have sex with other men.

  世界大概有3700万人携产生HIV病毒,其中不到200万人是近日激增的病毒感染者。在美国,HIV病毒携带者约110万人,但是其中15%的感染者(大概七分之平的人数)历来不了解自己带有欠病毒。些微群体的病毒感染率高于其他人,特别是那些少数族裔以及同同性存在性关系的男。

  HIV is considered rare in the US with less than 200,000 new infections per year. But for those living with HIV, treatment of the virus becomes a lifelong commitment to medication and maintenance because a reliable cure remains elusive. What makes HIV so hard to eradicate? And how close has science brought us to a cure?

  美国的HIV病例发生率还算比较低,每年新出现的HIV感染者不到20万。但是对于那些已经患上HIV的病人来说,对付这种病毒的方法只生毕生药不离身,苟延残喘,因为目前结束仍不出现可靠的根治方案。究竟是什么叫HIV这样难根治?究竟还要多久科学家才能发现胜利的曙光?

  What Is HIV?

  什么是HIV?

  The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is a virus that targets the body’s immune system. Within a few weeks of contracting the virus, known as the acute infection stage, people typically experience what feels like a very bad case of the flu as the virus works hard to replicate itself throughout the body. Once this initial surge is over, HIV transitions into a clinical latency stage which means people carrying the virus can go for years without experiencing any symptoms at all.

  人类免疫缺陷病毒,啊不怕是我们常说的HIV,这种病毒能直接摧毁我们体内的免疫系统。在感染该病毒的前几只星期,即使急性感染期,由于体内的病毒处于疯狂的自我复制阶段,病人通常会呈现有很严重的流感症状。如果这种伴随着病毒数量激增的感染初期一过去,HIV即使会进入临床潜伏期,立即为不怕表示患者会一直携带着这种病毒,并且不会发生其他症状并发。

  If left untreated, however, HIV can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. This occurs once the immune system has become sufficiently damaged or has been weakened enough to allow the contraction of what are called opportunistic illnesses.

  但是如果直接听之任之,那么HIV即使会发展成为获得性免疫缺陷综合征,啊不怕是艾滋病。如果免疫系统中了很大程度达到的损坏,也许由于太过脆弱而被机会性疾病趁虚而入,HIV即使会成为艾滋病。

  Why Is HIV So Hard to Cure?

  为什么HIV这样难以根治?

  The first cases of clinically-reported AIDS in the United States occurred in 1981 in Los Angeles. Since then, despite extensive study, we are still without a standard cure. HIV is particularly difficult to combat because it attacks the body’s immune system, the very system meant to fight off infections like HIV.

  美国首例临床诊断的艾滋病出现在1981年的洛杉矶。尽管有关艾滋病的深入研究一直在进行着,但是这些年来我们仍没生研究有一个标准的治方案。HIV所以很难攻克,凡是因为它破坏的是人体的免疫系统,如果免疫系统恰恰就是原来本能抵抗像HIV一类的感染病毒的保护墙。

  The virus first hijacks a protein called CD4 found on the cells of our immune system to replicate itself and then eventually kills those cells off. Among those under attack are T cells, the cells typically tasked with seeking out and destroying cells infected with viruses or cancers.

  这种病毒一旦进入体内,即使会先通过免疫细胞里的蛋白质CD4进行自我复制,下一场再以这些细胞全部消灭。包括T细胞也会受到攻击破坏,如果身T细胞本身承担的责任就是找出并摧毁那些已经感染上病毒或癌症的形成细胞。

  HIV is also be able to kill off immune system cells that it hasn’t even infected yet. The loss of those uninfected cells further leads to the decline in the immune system’s ability to do its job and thus the body’s ability to fight off future infections.

  HIV病毒还会见杀掉那些未曾感染的免疫细胞。如果这些功能完整的细胞一旦消失,即使会更加导致免疫系统功能的崩溃,身体也不怕无法抵御后续的各种病毒感染。

  As if all of that weren’t challenging enough, HIV is found to have an extremely high mutation rate in the first 10 days of infection, meaning researchers looking for a cure are chasing down a moving target.

  HIV同入侵人体,似乎就能够“势如破竹”,科学家发现这种病毒的形成率在感染前10天极其地高,立即就表示科学家在研究治疗方法的时候就是仿佛在追赶一个走的对象(研究变量太多)。

  We’ve discussed before how challenging it is to come up each year with the vaccine to fend off the ever-adapting flu virus, and the rapidly mutating HIV is at least an order of magnitude worse.

  我们前讨论了每年成功研究有对抗一直不绝适应环境的流感病毒的疫苗有多么困难,如果对于这种不绝变异的HIV,尤其难上加难。

  The virus at work on the body has been likened to an arsonist setting fire to the local firehouse: there is no way to fight the blaze when the tools for that fight are the ones under attack.

  这种病毒对身体的感染就好比纵火犯在地方小城镇的消防站里放火:当陷入火海的刚就是你能灭火的工具,这场大火你向无从灭起。

  (全文共520单词:正确美国人)

  ►帮帮提示:考研英语同源外刊美文赏读汇总

关于"末了阶段,真题的正确打开方式_备注经验_永利皇宫登录网址"发生15称研友在永利皇宫登录网址APP刊登了看法

扫我下载永利皇宫登录网址

永利皇宫登录网址地方站更多

× 关闭